References about the fruition of actions done by the body, speech, and mind:

Aṅguttaranikāya (The Numerical Sayings) Dukanipāta (The book of Two) Pāli texts:

  1. Vajja Sutta (1–Fault, Two kinds of consequences of bad conduct in the current life and in the afterlife. pp 139–140)

There are two kinds of consequences (faults): (1) the consequences in this very life such as suffering in the jail, because of one's committed criminal act of misconduct, and (2) the consequences in after–life such as being reborn in miserable conditions of hell or in any life with bad conditions.

 

  1. Tapaniya Sutta (3, Actions causing torment, pp 141)

The actions causing torment are: (1) three bodily misconducts (2) four verbal misconducts (3) three bad mental states.

 

  1. Atapaniya Sutta (4, Deeds not causing torment, pp 141)

The actions not causing torment are: (1) three wholesome bodily conducts (2) four wholesome verbal conducts (3) three wholesome mental states.

 

  1. (7, Dark, pp 143)

The dark–forces for impurity are: (1) moral shamelessness in doing immoral acts () (2) fearlessness or recklessness on the consequences of doing immoral acts ().

 

  1. (8–Bright, pp 143)

The bright–forces for purity are: (1) moral shame to avoid doing immoral acts () (2) moral fear from doing immoral acts ().

Cariya Sutta (9–Behavior, two major moral forces which keep human beings always distinguished from the ways of animal world. pp 143. They are: (1) moral shame from doing immoral things (hiri) (2) moral fear from doing immoral things (ottappa).

  1. Adhikaraṇavagga, Bala Sutta (11–the power of Reflection and mental development to improve one's conduct, pp 143–144)

(1) The power of Reflection and (2) the power of mental development. These two have the transformative power to remove bad conducts and improve one's conduct and actions in life.

 

  1. Niraya–sagga Sutta (16, 17, The Way to Hell & Heaven, pp 147–148)

(1) The reason for going down to hell is unjust act () and crooked and unfair acts () (2) the reason for going to heaven are righteous act () and just, wholesome actions () done by people.

 

  1. Ānanda Sutta (18–Things which must not be done and which should be done, pp 149)

The actions which certainly must not be done are: (1) three unwholesome bodily misconducts (2) four unwholesome verbal misconducts (3) three unwholesome mental states.

The actions which certainly should be done are: (1) three wholesome bodily conducts (2) four wholesome verbal conducts (3) three wholesome mental states.

 

  1. Akusala & Kusala Sutta, (19–The capacity to remove sin and develop virtue,

pp 150)

Everyone has the power and capacity to remove sin. By being able to remove sin, one will benefit a lot in many ways. Similarly, everyone has the power and capacity to nurture and cultivate virtue. By being virtuous, one will get a lot of benefits in many ways.

 

  1. Sanimitta vagga, 77–86 Both sin and virtue have their basis & causes (pp 172–173)

The reasons of sin are: (1) Greed () (2) Aversion () (3) ignorance () By being able to remove these mental causes, sin can be reduced and removed slowly. The reasons of virtue are: (1) non–greed () (2) Loving–goodwill () (3) Wisdom (). By being able to develop these causes, virtue can be developed.

 

Aṅguttaranikāya, Tikanipāta (The book of Three):

  1. Attabyāpāda Sutta (17–Affliction for oneself and others, pp 213)

The actions which can cause affliction to oneself and others: (1) three unwholesome bodily misconducts (2) four unwholesome verbal misconducts (3) three unwholesome mental states.

The actions which cannot cause affliction to oneself and others are: (1) three wholesome bodily good conducts (2) four wholesome verbal good conducts (3) three wholesome mental states.

 

  1. Nidāna Sutta (34–Causes of good and bad actions, pp 230–231)

The causes of Bad are: (1) Greed () (2) Aversion () (3) ignorance ().

The cause of good are: (1) non–greed () (2) Loving–goodwill () (3) Wisdom (). All good and bad actions () are based on these causes. Having done the actions based on these causes, the result is experienced either in this very life or in the next immediate rebirth or in a series of subsequent rebirths.

 

  1. Vippatti–sampadā Sutta (118–three kinds of failures and Accomplishments. pp 350,351)

 

The threeare: (1) Moral failure () (2) Mental failure () (3) View or belief failure ().

 

The three are: (1) Moral accomplishment ()

(2) Mental accomplishment () (3) View or belief accomplishment ().

 

 

  1. Kammanta Sutta (119– Activities or actions. pp 351)

The three failures: (1) Action Failure (committing three bad bodily misconducts and four verbal misconducts in daily life). (2) Livelihood failure (earning wrong livelihood such as selling weapons, live animals, meat, poison, and intoxicants).

(3) View failure (holding some of (1) there is no effect of charity (2) no good effect of faith–based offering (3) no good effect of hospitality (4) no consequences of good or bad actions (5) no sanctity of current life but an occurrence which happened by chance (6) no afterlife (7) no sacred role of a mother (8) no sacred role of a father (9) no living beings such as deity, angels or ghosts whose occasional appearance are mostly spontaneous (10) no holy ascetics or saintly people who live pious life and who have extraordinary powers which can see those in this life and the life beyond.)

 

The three accomplishments:

(1) Action accomplishment (Not doing three bad bodily misconducts and four verbal misconducts in daily life).

(2) Livelihood accomplishment (earning right livelihood without causing harm to others by avoiding selling weapons, live animals, meat, poison and intoxicants).

(3) View accomplishment (holding some of : (1) there is positive effect of charity (2) good effect of faith–based offering (3) good effect of hospitality (4) the consequences of good or bad actions (5) the sanctity of current life (6) afterlife (7) the sacred role of a mother (8) the sacred role of a father (9) there are living beings such as deity, angels or ghosts whose occasional appearance are mostly spontaneous (10) there are holy ascetics or saintly people who live pious life and who have possessed extraordinary powers seeing those in this life and the life beyond. )

 

 

  1. Paṭhama & Dutiya Soceya Sutta (120,121–Purities, pp 351–352)

The three kinds of purities (the first Sutta intended for ordinary lay–folks)

(1) Bodily purity (refraining from three unwholesome bodily misconducts).

(2) Verbal purity (refraining from four unwholesome verbal misconducts).

(3) Mental purity (being non–greedy, having loving goodwill, nurturing the right views).

 

The three kinds of purities (Second Sutta exclusively intended for those following a more devoted spiritual path)

(1) Bodily purity (abstaining from killing, stealing and sex).

(2) Verbal purity (avoiding from four unwholesome verbal misconducts).

(3) Mental purity (making attempts to remove five major mental hindrances such as sensual desire, aversion, sloth and torpor, mental restlessness and compunction, and doubt by means of meditation and spiritual training).

 

 

Aṅguttaranikāya, Catukkanipāta (The book of four):

  1. Sañcetaniyavagga, Cetanā Sutta (171– volitional causes, pp 536–538)

Three main volitional points of : (1) Body (2) Speech (3) Mind.

 

Four conditioning modes of in this Sutta:

(1) self–generated acts, (2) external factor–based acts such as those spurred by other people or external causes, (3) Intentionally and consciously done acts,

(4) Unintentionally and unconsciously initiated spontaneous acts.

 

  1. Saṁkhitta & Vitthāra Sutta (232, 233–four kinds of Kamma, pp 601–602)

  • The dark with dark result. This includes such as killing one's own mother, father, a saint, causing schism among monastic community, causing the bruise on the person of Buddha. It also includes living life by repeatedly committing various kinds of misconduct.

  • The white with white results. This includes living a pious life by refraining from ten kinds of misconduct and cultivating goodwill and good conduct.

  • A mix of dark and white with mixed results of dark and white.This is a common pattern among most people of the world because they do good things and also do bad things depending on various mental states of the moment.

  • Neither dark nor white but a rare kind of which can lead to the exhaustion of all energy. This occurs only when a person either perfectly develops the seven factors of enlightenment in the mind or when one attains a specific stage of enlightenment in the spiritual path of intensive, long–term meditation.

  • The term dark and white are idiomatic expressions. The term “dark” refers to totally negative nature of bad actions and their negative result. The term “white” refers to positive wholesome nature of the good actions and their positive results.

 

  1. Kamma vagga, Soṇakāyana Sutta (234–four kinds of Kamma, pp 603)

Similar to above four .

 

  1. Kamma vagga, paṭhama–sikkhāpada Sutta (235, 236–Training rules, pp 603–604)

Similar to four as mentioned above.

 

 

Aṅguttaranikāya, Pañcakanipāta (The book of Five):

  1. Tikaṇḍakī vagga, Niraya Sutta (145–Hell, pp 762)

This Sutta mentions a person who commits one of five immoral acts (e.g., five precepts) is brought down to hell by his own acts upon death. It also mentions about how a person

who keeps five moral precepts is raised up to the heaven and good rebirths by his own

acts.

 

(2) Upāsaka vagga, vera Sutta (174–Enmities, pp 787, 788)

This Sutta mentions how each of five immoral acts serve as if a person's enemy because of their ability to bring down to hell by those acts upon one's death.

 

(3) Akkosaka vagga, Sīla Sutta (213–Virtuous Behavior, pp 823, 824)

Five consequences of immorality (1) loss of wealth (2) having bad reputation

(3) loss of face and respect in the community (4) confused death (5) bad rebirth

such as hell etc.

 

Five benefit of morality (1) gain of wealth (2) having good reputation (3) earning

 respect in the community (4) peaceful death (5) good rebirth such as heaven

 etc.

 

 

  1. Duccarita vagga, paṭhama–duccarita Sutta (241–Misconduct, pp 835)

 

Five negative consequences of ten misconducts: (1) self–accusation and self–blame (2) being censured by the wise and saintly persons (3) bad reputation (4) confused death (5) bad rebirth such as hell etc.

 

Five positive consequences of ten right conducts, e.g., refraining from ten misconducts: (1) no self–accusation and no self–blame (2) being praised by the wise and saintly persons (3) good reputation (4) peaceful and serene death (5) good rebirth such as heaven etc.

 

  1. Sikkhāpada peyāla, Bhikkhu Sutta (286–302–Training Rules Repetition Series)

This Sutta mentions that any person, regardless of any social rank or position, such as monks, female–monks, novices, devotees, heretics, those belonging to high caste or low–caste, wealthy or poor, celebrity or non–celebrities, religious or free thinkers, will all face the destiny of their rebirths according to the way they live their life. If they commit five immoral acts, they will gradually get either of five negative consequences. If they live life responsibly and morally, they will get either of five positive consequences.

 

 

Aṅguttaranikāya, Chakkanipāta (The book of Six):

Paṭhama & Dutiya niraya Sutta (81, 82–Hell, pp 975, 976)

This Sutta mentions a person who commits one of five immoral acts (e.g., breaking five precepts) along with evil desire and wrong views (in the first Sutta), greed and arrogancy (in the second sutta) will be brought down to hell by his own acts and bad mentality upon death. It also mentions about how a person who keeps five moral precepts, with no evil desire and wrong views, no greed and arrogancy, is being brought up to good rebirth such as heaven by his own acts and good mentality.

 

 

Aṅguttaranikāya, Aṭṭhakanipāta (The book of Eight):

Dāna vagga, Duccarita vipāka Sutta (40–Conducive, the results of bad actions. pp 1175–1176)   This Sutta mentions residual negative results of some misconducts at times of rebirths.

 

Three bodily misconducts when repeatedly committed: (1) Killing can lead to shortness of life span in the future rebirths. (2) Stealing can lead to the loss of one's wealth in the future rebirths. (3) Adultery can lead to unhappy marriage by having hostile conditions of the spouse.

 

Four verbal misconducts when repeatedly committed: (1) Lying can lead to having false accusations from others. (2) Slandering (speech aimed at division among friends) can lead to being separated from one's friends. (3) Harsh speech can lead to having unpleasant sound. (4) Frivolous talk can lead to having distrusted by others.

 

Alcoholic drinks and long–term use of narcotic drugs can lead to negative mental problem such as madness.

 

 

Aṅguttaranikāya, Dasakanipāta (The book of Ten):

  1. Mahāli Sutta (47–Mahāli, the causes for sinful & virtuous deeds, pp 1398)

The causes in doing and occurring of evil and unwholesome acts: (1) Lobhā–greed (2) Dosā–animosity (3) Mohā–ignorance (4) Ayoniso–manasikāra–the wrong attitude (5) Micchāpaṇihita citta–unmanaged, wrongly directed mental states.

The causes of doing righteous and wholesome acts: (1) Alobha–non–greed (2) Adosa–loving goodwill (3) Amoha–wisdom (4) Yoniso–manasikāra–the right attitude (5) Sammāpaṇihita citta–well–managed, rightly directed mental states.

 

  1. (211, 212–Hell, pp 1528, 1529, 1530, 1531, 1532)

Ten causes leading to hell and bad rebirth: e.g., Ten misconducts.

Ten causes leading to heaven and good rebirth: e.g., Ten good conducts.

 

 

 

Of ten misconducts: Three bodily misconducts are called bodily acts which are against the righteousness (adhamma) and not fair but crooked (visama). Four verbal misconducts are called verbal acts which are against the righteousness and fairness. Three bad mental states are called mental states which are against the law of righteousness (dhamma) and fairness (sama). All these ten misconducts are called wrong and crooked acts which can lead to bad results in rebirth.

 

Of ten good conducts: Three bodily good conducts are called bodily acts which are the righteousness (dhamma) and fairness (sama). Four good verbal conducts are called verbal acts which are the righteousness and fairness. Three good mental states are called the righteousness (dhamma) and fairness (sama). All these ten good conducts are called right and fair acts which can lead to good results.

 

  1. Sāmañña Sutta (221, 222, 223, 224–Similarity, ten actions leading to hell and heaven. pp 1544, 1545, 1546)

This Sutta is similar to the preceding Sutta but it becomes more detailed. It mentions about of not only (a) doing bad things oneself, but also (b) causing others to do bad things, (c) rejoicing in the bad actions of others and (d) praising of doing bad things. Thus, it is multiplied up to by means of four modes.

 

Majjhimanikāya (The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha), Uparipaṇṇāsa:

  1. (The Shorter Exposition of Kamma, Action, pp 1053–1057). This is some of minor  h person has to live are quite complex and beyond simple explanation of an ordinary person. This Sutta explains the widespread inequality of people in the human society regarding totally different conditions among human beings. A young intelligent man named subha, the son of a wealthy and well–known brahmin, has deep thoughts as to why some are long–lived while some are short–lived, why some are sickly while some are healthy and so on. He eventually approached Buddha and asked his big questions to Buddha. Here is a brief explanation of Buddha from a deeper spiritual viewpoint of eternal cosmic law of Kamma.

(a–1) Those who used to destroy life, bloody–handed, used to killing and torture, merciless toward living beings. Such people have a short span of life.

(a–2) Those who used to refrain from killing life, with rod and weapon laid aside, ashamed of doing bad things, compassionate to living beings, have a long span of life.

(b–1) Those used to injure living beings either with hand or with clod or with a stick or with a weapon, are reborn sickly.

(b–2) Those who are kind, not used to injuring living beings either with hand or with clod or with a stick or with a weapon, are reborn healthy.

(c–1) Those who are given to anger, easily upset over a little criticism, display anger, hate and displeasure, are reborn ugly.

(c–2) Those who are not given to anger, being not upset even when criticized much, do not react in anger, hate and displeasure, are reborn beautiful.

(d–1) Those who are envious and jealous of other's wellbeing such as success, fame and wealth, are reborn with no influence and power.

(d–2) Those who are not envious and jealous of other's wellbeing such as success, fame and wealth, are reborn with much influence and power.

(e–1) Those who never offer charity to people such as ascetics, recluses and the needy ones due to lack of generous goodwill, are reborn poor.

(e–2) Those who offer charity to people such as ascetics, recluses, and the needy ones with a generous goodwill, are reborn rich.

(f–1) Those who are arrogant, rude and proud, never show respect to those who are worthy of respect by bowing, by getting up, by giving seat and way. Due to such act of disrespect and arrogancy, they are reborn into families of low social rank.

(f–2) Those who are humble, not proud, show respect to those who are worthy of respect by bowing, by getting up, by giving seat or way. Due to such humble act of respect, they are reborn into families of high social rank.

(g–1) Those who never bother to be analytical, do not ask questions to the wise such as ascetics and Brahmins regarding what is virtue, what is sin, what is blamed, what is blameless, what to do, what not to do, what can lead to suffering, what is conducive for long–term wellbeing and so on. Such people are reborn with low intelligence capacity. 

(g–2) Those who used to be analytical, ask questions to the wise such as ascetics and Brahmins regarding what is virtue, what is sin, what is blamed, what is blameless, what to do, what not to do, what can lead to suffering, what is conducive for long–term wellbeing and so on. Such people are reborn wise with a sharp intelligence.

 

  1. Mahākammavibhaṅga Sutta (The Greater Exposition of Kamma, Action, pp 1058–1057–1065). This is some of major analysis on the teachings of Kamma.

In this Sutta, Buddha explains to venerable Ānanda, His personal assistant, about the complex nature of bad and good actions bearing unexpected opposite results sometimes depending on multiple factors playing the lead roles in determining a person's destiny of rebirth. It is, as a matter of fact, a very profound explanation on the complex functioning aspect of Kamma, told by Buddha using various practical scenarios of mixed actions.

 

 

(6) Khuddaka Pāṭha:

  1. Parābhava Sutta (6–Downfall, acts leading to downfall, pp 171)

(a) One who loves dhamma (righteousness) is successful. But one who detest it falls down.

(b) Liking the bad people and disliking the good people, preferring their bad ways, is the way to downfall.

(c) Being lethargic, gregarious, Inactive, lazy and of quick temper, is the way to downfall.

(d) Despite being able to help, one neglects old parents needing help. This is the way to downfall.

(e) If one deceives by false speech, either an ascetic or a Brahmin or a mendicant, this is the way to downfall.

(f) If a person, despite being rich with wealth, consumes delicacies and nice things alone, this is the way to downfall.

(g) Being proud because of high caste, family lineage or wealth, one looks down even on one's own relatives. This is the way to downfall.

(h) By womanizing, or drinking, or gambling, one squanders whatever one has. This is the way to downfall.

(i) Being not content with one's own wife, one seeks pleasure in the prostitutes and other's wives. This is the way to downfall.

(j) A man past his youth, marries a young woman of good figure. Being jealous (over likelihood of infidelity of the young wife), cannot sleep well. This is the way to downfall.

(k) Placing a debauched woman or a man, who is a spendthrift, in a position of authority (in the important affairs), is the way to downfall.

(l) Despite being born into royal family, with less resources and much greed, one longs to be the king. This is the way to downfall.

 

(1) Vasala Sutta (7–The Outcast, the mean and base conducts, pp 174)

A person who is given to anger, vengeful, the worst ingrate, of wrong views, crafty, is an outcast.

  1. Lacking in kindness, one tortures creatures, which are once–born (e.g., mammals) or twice–born (e.g., birds).Such a person is known as an outcast.

(3) One who attacks and sieges villages and towns, notoriously known as a tyrant. Such a person is known as an outcast.

(4) One steals other's cherished things, located either inside the village or in the fields, without being formally given (by the owner). Such a person is known as an outcast.

(5) Having borrowed money, one evades from the creditors, saying “I owe nothing to you”. Such a person is known as an outcast.

(6) One who not only waylays but also kills, the travelers on the road even for a pittance. Such a person is known as an outcast.

(7) One bears false–witness (telling lies in the court), for oneself or for others or for money's sake.  Such a person is known as an outcast.

(8) One is seen involved with wives of relatives or friends, through coercion or out of love.  Such a person is known as an outcast.

(9) Despite being able to help, one neglects old parents needing help. Such a person is known as an outcast.

(10) One who hits or verbally abuses, one's mother or father or brother or sister or in–laws.  Such a person is known as an outcast.

(11) When consulted for advice, one instructs either harmful one, or say things in ambiguity. Such a person is known as an outcast.

(12) Having done an evil act, one wishes “may no one knows it” and hide it. Such a person is known as an outcast.

(13) When visiting another's family, one enjoys a fine meal there, but does not return the favor to his host. Such a person is known as an outcast.

(14) If one deceives with false speech, an ascetic or a Brahmin or any other mendicant. Such a person is known as an outcast. 

(15) One who does not offer food, but verbally abuses an ascetic or a brahmin who have come at the meal time.  Such a person is known as an outcast. 

(16) Being covered by delusion, looking for material gain of even insignificant value, one speaks deceptive words (either to impress or to deceive).  Such a person is known as an outcast. 

(17) One who extols oneself and disdainful of others, brings down oneself by being over–proud. Such a person is known as an outcast. 

(18) One who is a harasser, stingy, of evil desires, miserly, deceitful, without moral shame or moral fear. Such a person is known as an outcast. 

(19) One who reviles Buddha or His disciples, an ascetic or an ordinary householder. Such a person is known as an outcast.

(20) One claims to be an arahant (enlightened saint), even if not being so in truth. This is the meanest outcast of the whole world.

(21) An outcast or a saint is not to be defined by virtue of birth or social rank, but it is to be defined by the actions and characteristics.

 

  1. Metta Sutta (8–Loving–Kindness, pp 179–180)

This Sutta teaches about development of mettā (loving–kindness goodwill) toward all living beings like the way a mother loves her only begotten child even risking her own life sometimes. It also teaches about the necessary rules to be followed by anyone who wishes to develop it. In addition, it is used as a religious liturgy for the protection and blessing by monastics as well as by lay people.

  1. Maṅgala Sutta (4–Blessings, acts which can lead to blessings, pp 198–200)

This Sutta explains about 38 kinds of blessings to be practiced and achieved by people if they wish to get blessings and wellbeing in daily life. Below is a brief description.

(1) Not associating with bad people (2) associating with good people (3) Respect and honor to those worthy of it. (4) Choosing suitable place for one's needs and progress (5) having accumulated meritorious acts in the journey of life (6) maintaining self–control on the right path. (7) Seeking and broadening knowledge (8) Acquiring and learning a skill (9) Being well–trained in the discipline (10) speaking well. (11) Caring parents (12) Caring family such as wife and children (13) An honest occupation. (14) Giving charity (15) Practicing the noble Dhamma (16) Giving support to one's relatives (if necessary and if being able to do so) (17) Doing blameless deeds. (18) Desisting from evil e.g., mentally not enjoying in it (19) Practically refraining from evil (20) Refraining from alcohol and drugs (21) Heedfulness in developing good qualities. (22) Respect (23) Humility (24) Contentment (25) Gratefulness (26) Timely listening to the Dhamma. (27) Patience (28) Being amenable to advice (29) Seeing of the ascetics (30) Timely discussion on the Dhamma with them. (31) Austerity (32) Spiritual life (33) Seeing and understanding noble truth (34) Realizing Nibbāna. (35) A strong resilient spirit in the face of ups and downs of life (36) overcoming sorrow (37) Overcoming lust and greed and mental impurities (38) A secure mind being free from mental defilements.

  1. (3–Well spoken, nice speech, pp 229)

Four factors of a blameless speech;

(1) being well–spoken e.g., aimed at having beneficial result. (2) being related to Dhamma (righteousness) (3) being Pleasant (4) being truthful.

 

(6) Selected Suttas to study from the Itivuttaka:

 

  1. Puññakiriyavatthu Sutta (Three major grounds for making merit, pp 191)

(1) Giving charity (2) Morality (3) Spiritual Development

  1. (64–Misconduct, pp 193)

(1) Bodily misconduct (2) Verbal is conduct (3) Mental misconduct

  1. (65–Good conduct, pp 193)

(1) Bodily good conduct (2) Verbal good conduct (3) Mental good conduct

  1. (66–Purities, pp 194)

(1) Purity of the Body (2) Purity of the speech (3) Purity of the mind

  1. (76–Aspiring for happiness, pp 201)

(1) Keep one's good morals if one wishes praise (2) Keep good morals if one wishes prosperity (3) Keep good morals if one wishes to be reborn in the heaven or in a good rebirth.

  1. Antrāmala Sutta (88–Inner–stains, pp 212)

(1) Greed (2) Anger (3) Delusion.

These three mental states, Buddha said, are one's inner stains, one's inner foes, one's inner enemies, one's inner killers, one's inner opponents.